Tuesday, 15 May 2007

Guest Article - The Art of the Lie

Dennis performs a public service by teaching us how to be better bullshitters, because goodness knows we aren't full of enough shit already! Anyway take it away Dennis - Mr S.

The Art of the Lie



We are fascinated by the skillful lie. The ability to make someone act against their own self-interest, using nothing but words, feels almost like hypnotism. We can't get enough of movies about con men using an intricate plan to pull the wool over a greedy mark's eyes. And crafting an effective lie is just plain fun.



Alas, one does not get much opportunity to practice the art of lying in polite society. But that's where games come in! Below I list some ways in which games incorporate lying and talk about whether the mechanic works in that game or not. I also present my rules for executing the perfect lie. Be sure to add more in the Comments section.



The Diplomacy stab



The classic example from my #1 all-time game. "Yes, England, you should definitely abandon your homeland and attack Germany in full force. Mon dieu, of course I will support you! That fleet in the English Channel is...also on its way to Germany!" Which brings us to:



Lying Rule #1 -- A good lie must be clearly in your self-interest.



The biggest mistake I see new Diplomacy players make is to offer a deal that rivals Mother Teresa in generosity. "You do this and this and this, and I'll support you in all of those moves, and you'll gain three centers!" Who is going to believe that you have willingly turned into someone's lackey? The brilliance of Diplomacy is that to make a truly effective stab, you must often concoct two completely different and equally effective battle plans, and present each to a different subset of your opponents. Each potential ally must see that you are both benefiting equally (approximately) from the plan, or they will surely smell a rat. Which plan you follow then depends on how your potential allies receive your ideas, how much they trust you, how much *you* trust *them*, and so on.



Diplomacy also makes for the best "all-time greatest lie" stories after-the-fact. That example in the first paragraph? I really did that once as France, and swallowed half the island in one go. The German's rant at England was legendary.



The Junta foreign aid allocation



"Oh dear, it's been another bad year...." In Junta, each year El Presidente Grande draws eight bills from a random deck to represent foreign aid from fickle Uncle Sam. Each bill is 1-3 million pesos (or whatever the unit is), so the total will be 8-24 million; only the President knows how much. The President then declares a budget allocation to each cabinet member (which is everybody else), and keeps the surplus; only the President knows how much! Since the President never wants the room to know that they are awash in cash, the opening line of this paragraph is as traditional as the ceremonial first shelling of the Presidential Palace. Which brings us to:



Lying Rule #2 -- You can't fool all the people all the time.



The quickest route to a bullet in the back is to screw your cabinet year after year. Give the people nothing, and they will have nothing to lose. So if you want to exploit the Presidency for all it is worth, it helps to tell the truth...at least once, anyway. Give one generous budget -- or better yet, in a lean year, dole out all the money, and show that you have nothing remaining. That way you don't help your opponents too much, and you put them at ease long enough for you to make the big grab.



But should you even be trying to stay President? One move I have tried again and again goes like this. First, give generous budgets to build the people's faith. By getting a lot of cash in circulation, you also draw out a lot of assassin cards, as player's try to steal from each other instead of you. Second, when you finally do draw a healthy amount of cash (16+ million), declare that it's been a truly horrible year, and nominate a budget that no one can possibly accept. Third, make sure it gets voted down, since when that happens, the President gets it ALL. Fourth, get to bank. Fifth, profit.



On second though, replace step 4 with "and then a miracle occurs."



No matter how much trust I build up, I never seem to pull this move off. Has anyone ever managed it, or does the "budget rejected" rule exist just to get the President killed and create chaos? Not that there's anything *wrong* with that....



The Civilization calamity pass



"I have three goods, total value 7, one of which is Salt." Yeah, and another of which says Your Doom in bright red letters. In Civilization, some resource cards are replaced with calamities that do not affect the person who draws them, but the player that accidentally trades for it (trading in Civ uses incomplete information by design). This is one of my least favorite lying mechanisms. Usually it becomes pretty clear who is trying to pawn off a calamity, and someone always ends up taking it anyway, because it is just too important to get the other goods included in the offer. A lie is not as much fun when the opponent sees through it and still plays along. But it does lead us to:



Lying Rule #3 -- Try to be nonchalant; the lie should be forced out of you.



Nothing screams "I have a calamity!" in Civilization like the guy who immediately finds a deal for everyone requesting a trade. "You need Salt? I have Salt! Oh wait, you need Cloth? I have that too!" Patience, Grasshopper. Wait until the leader is feeling a bit of an embargo. After a minute or so of stonewalling, come back with "Well, I suppose I could do it, but I really need something good in return." Hilarity ensues.



The Settlers/Bohnanza "future considerations"



Whaaaaaa? An Ameritrash mechanic in a Euro standard and...BEAN TRADING?!? I cast thee out!



Maybe it's just my game group, but even Euro games can spawn the big lie if there is trading involved. Many times an extra layer of trading will develop called the "future considerations." Note that I'm not talking about a metagame, since it never extends beyond the game currently in progress. But in our group, the promise to go easy on a future deal in exchange for some help right now is a gold standard currency. Bohnanza is the perfect game for this, since during the trading phase, all beans in play must be planted, even if you have to dig up a promising field to do it. So often the active player will be desperate to take *any* deal, just to get rid of the cards in front of him. And thus comes..."OK, I'll give you a Stink for those three, but I'm going to want some future considerations." Settlers also works well in those moments when you are trying to trade down to seven cards to avoid being robber fodder. All of which leads us to:



Lying Rule #4 -- Save the big lie for last.



The "future considerations" show up in our trading games because we actually do make future considerations, which work out beneficially for both parties. Right up until they don't. As Mr. Burns said when taking the Pin Pals bowling trophy, a true leader knows when to make the sudden grab for personal glory. Tell the truth right up until the lie will guarantee the win...and then lie like a rug.



Don't forget to add more Lying Rules in the Comments section!

382 comments:

1 – 200 of 382   Newer›   Newest»
Matt Thrower said...

Great article. I love games like this, but I'm unfortunate enough to be gaming with a bunch of social science graduates who could charm the fur off a fox. Maybe next time I can redress the balance a bit ...

Dennis Ugolini said...

I forgot to include one of the purest lying games, Werewolf, but I've never been its biggest fan. It's entirely personality driven, with almost no tangible information (other than voting patterns) to go on. So I don't take as much pleasure in a successful bluff, since my victim has no reason to believe or disbelieve me except for my "poker face."

Shellhead said...

During my short time working as a warehouse monkey for Fantasy Flight, I was fortunate to attend their awesome company Christmas party. They set out copies of many of their games for people to play while enjoying fine foods and beverage.

However, with just a few exceptions, most of the people at the party ended up playing in a large game of Werewolf. Actually, it ended up being several games of Werewolf in a row. Great fun.

My best time ever playing Werewolf was in a 15-player game at a different party, where the moderator only dealt out 2 Werewolves amongst all the Villagers and the Seer. When we "woke up" that first turn to see it was just the two of us against the town, I pointed at myself and then pointed at him and then shook my head vigorously. He figured it out, and we consistently picked opposite sides every time there was a vote. Near the end, they got me, but they never figured out that he was a Werewolf until the bitter end.

Pat H said...

Planning ahead is paramount in lying. Tell as many truths as possible and come through every time just to turn around at the right moment and Whamo! Works every time.

Like I always say - do the right thing and lie.

Michael Barnes said...

Nice work Dennis...the "Civilization Calamity Pass" is one of the greatest lying methods in gaming...I especially like how immediate it is...the recipient knows they're fucked right away, and you can kiss amiable relations for the rest of the game goodbye.

robartin said...

A lot of people think of Diplomacy as a pure negotiation and backstabbing game. But I've found it to be a lot more like a poker game - except with all the cards face up. It's about reading the map and the other players. It's a perfect information game, so that "surprise backstab" is staring you right in the face before it happens.

My favorite little bit of Diplomacy wisdom?

"The map never lies."

Malloc said...

Ahh... Yes.

Remember Kids, to be good at the lie you must tell the truth 99% of the time.

It is a mistake I see in Diplomacy games all the time. !st turn lies that gane the player nothing but an enemy... why? Save the lie for the Death Blow.

-M

Julian said...

Dennis,

Great read!

I'd echo Malloc's point about not lying much. The less you lie the more effective the lie is when it comes, and the bigger the whopper you can tell. So that's rule # 5.

Rule # 6 is harder to pull off: Be a chick. The most spectacular lying I've seen in board games is by women. My sister once built a coalition of five against two. (I was in the two.) She managed to get the other four to do all the heavy lifting in destroying us, picked up all the spoils, and then one by one stabbed each person in the back. Each time the stabee was astonished. Brilliant, but I couldn't get away with it.

Michael Barnes said...

Actually, one of the best negotiators I've ever met in my life is this gentleman named Peter Ianuzzi. I never saw him lie in a single game yet he was a complete SHARK at the table. Playing INTRIGE with him was like being told to give him all your money and doing so without arguing.

Ken B. said...

Everyone just accepts that I will commit "The Lie" even though I can only think of a tiny handful of times I have actually been guilty of it.

I've just resigned myself to that fate. I can play nice for an entire game, then have to make a stab, and get "I KNEW IT! YOU CAN'T TRUST HIM!" and I'm like, "Dude, we're the last two players left in the game."

Pat H said...

Hey Ken, if that keeps'em on their toe's then that's a good thing.

Ken B. said...

That of course reminds me of when we used to play multi-player Magic: The Gathering way back when.

Whenever someone would actually attack someone, that person would get pissed. "What are you attacking ME for?!"


Like the point of the game was for all of us to be cool with each other, build up our armies, have them flex and pose, and then quit when one of us runs out of cards. "Sorry, folks, show's over."


Man, there used to be some NASTY grudges, too. Three weeks later--"I'll Terror your creature." "WHAT FOR?" "Remember three weeks ago when you attacked me with your Mahamoti, even though I didn't have the most life points?" "Are you serious?" "YEAH, I thought WE WERE COOL WITH EACH OTHER!"

Nicholas said...

barnes wrote:

"Actually, one of the best negotiators I've ever met in my life is this gentleman named Peter Ianuzzi. I never saw him lie in a single game yet he was a complete SHARK at the table. Playing INTRIGE with him was like being told to give him all your money and doing so without arguing."

Ok, I love intrige, and I have been trying for ages to figure out how to play well. I've always had some intuition that one should try to find ways of avoiding lies entirely, or until it really matters, but by god, it's hard to do in intrige. What were Ianuzzi's secrets? How does one play this game well? Give it up!

Pat H said...

That's when you respond...

"Oh good I thought this was because you saw that youtube video of me and your girlfriend".

robartin said...

Actually, one of the best negotiators I've ever met in my life is this gentleman named Peter Ianuzzi.

Yeah Peter was pretty good. Predictably, he's studying to be a lawyer now. I'll tell you what though, do you remember Charlie? That guy was a real pro. He won every game of Traders of Genoa we ever played with him. Of course he was studying economics if I recall correctly.

Dennis Ugolini said...

Does anyone remember the game Fantasy Business? It was sort of a trading game based on multiple rounds of the Prisoner's Dilemna. Everyone valued goods at a high price, until someone undercut, and then the prices collapsed. The trick was to time the big stab for just the right moment.

I could never get anyone else into the game. There was something just not quite right about the scoring that put people off.

Michael Barnes said...

Charlie was the devil...he could do everything in 20 seconds that most of these AP-infected guys can't do in 20 minutes. Total shark, that guy.

I dug FANTASY BUSINESS well enough...it was all about the big screw..."Yeah, let's all charge $6 for the swords. We all agree right? Oops, I went $5. Sorry guys!"

That's kind of an underrated game...some things about it don't really work (not enough action cards, funky scoring, etc.) but it can be really, really dirty. Great game for liars.

Shellhead said...

Ken B.: That of course reminds me of when we used to play multi-player Magic: The Gathering way back when.

Whenever someone would actually attack someone, that person would get pissed. "What are you attacking ME for?!"


During the two-year time period when I played Magic, we played a decent five-player variant where the people on your immediate right and left (at the start) were your allies and the two people not sitting next to you (at the start) were your enemies. The first person to eliminate both of their enemies would win.

Barnes: Actually, one of the best negotiators I've ever met in my life is this gentleman named Peter Ianuzzi. I never saw him lie in a single game yet he was a complete SHARK at the table. Playing INTRIGE with him was like being told to give him all your money and doing so without arguing.

For the first few years that I played Jyhad, the only negotiations took place during votes, and it was fairly minimal, based entirely on who actually had votes available. In most other respects, we had a pretty good group of players on the local scene.

Then one of our players met up with a group of players in his hometown of Madison, Wisconsin. For the next two years, our groups sometimes played at each other's tournaments. The Madison players were somewhat better deck designers than the Twin Cities, but the huge difference was their sophisticated negotiation tactics.

To be more specific, they expanded on the obvious politics of the voting and moved that into the rest of the game. Nearly everything became subject to negotiation. "oh, you want your vampire to get a gun? Talk to me. Tell me why I should allow this to happen." Or, "Wow, that bleed looks like it's going to really hurt. I could tap this card and give you another +1 intercept. What can you offer me?"

They did this by building decks that gave them enough intercept to meddle in a variety of situations, as well as lasting resources that could potentially be loaned or deployed on behalf of other players. It took the whole game to a new level.

It's a shame that the Madison group scattered as they all finished with school or whatever. Their style of play didn't really catch on in the Twin Cities, as our moody and introverted nordic card players prefer sullen hostility to tricky negotiations.

Ken B. said...

Jyhad was rich in interaction like that, no doubt about it. When we used to have these huge 6-8 player games every weekend, you'd better be sure you put something in your deck that you could "give away" or bargain with. The Radio Station, that card that let you take a Bleed for someone, essentially anything extra that you could point to and say, "Help me out, and I'll give you this" or "I'll help you now but you owe me one."

Great game, Jyhad. Never got old even though we never went past the first set.

Ken B. said...

After Jyhad came out, we did try to work some predator/prey stuff into Magic, and that helped. You got 6 life when your prey was knocked out, and you could only attack left.

Since Magic wasn't designed for it, though, it did lead to some odd play at times. It did cut down on the "HEY! STOP ATTACKING ME!" stuff.

Clarissimus said...

I almost never lie in FTF games where I'm dealing with the same people. It helps to have a reputation for being trustworthy. That way five years down the road when you really need to break your word to get the win . . .

On the other hand, most of my Diplomacy games are against anonymous internet opponents. That makes the game better, I think, because there's no hesitation to stab when you need to.

ubarose said...

When I play games, I try to lie poorly. People believe that they can tell when am lying, and I want to keep it that way.

TaleSpinner said...

One of the earliest games I've every played that involved lying was the simple card game "Bluff".

We played with 2 normal decks, distributed all cards to everyone and everyone took turns laying down cards while declaring something like "These are 3 eights". You could challenge another person's claim and if it turned out to be a lie, he'd have to pick up all discarded cards. If not, then you'd pick them up. If no one challenges, the next person gets to lay down cards.

However, we played a variant where the everyone else had to play the same type of cards as the first player, so if "eights" were declared by the first player, everyone else had to follow and play "eights" as well. If no one else could play "eights" the person who played cards last starts next.

With this variant, we suddenly saw a suspicious number of "eights" appearing in the centre of the table. It was common to suddenly have 20+ "eights" declared! One of the favourite strategies employed were if you had managed to accumulate all the 8 cards of a type, say all of the "two"s. You'd lay down 8 crap cards and declare them as "two"s, knowing that no one else has "two"s. When no one else challenges or plays more cards, you lay another 8 cards and declare those as "two"s as well. You can see everyone thinking, "Is he bluffing now? Or previously?"

The rule I learnt from this game was "If you're going to bluff, make it a real big whopper."

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